Throughout history, societies have devised various strategies for punishing criminal criminals while also maintaining the general public’s safety. Those who research the many sorts of crimes and their associated penalties discover five primary categories of criminal punishment: incapacitation, deterrent, retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration, among others.
Further, the five sorts of criminal penalties are described below, each in its category, to provide further clarification.
Crime sanctions are classified into many categories.
Restorative justice is a relatively recent concept. Experts in criminology now consider it to be a legitimate criminal punishment alternative. Those who make decisions on the sorts of crimes, such as theft or accomplice to murder, and the severity of their penalties are often guided by one of the following approaches:
This is one of the earliest types of retribution, and it is based on the concept of “an eye for an eye” in its most basic form.
Retribution advocates feel that it provides victims of crime and society as a whole with a sense of pleasure in knowing that the criminal has gotten the proper measure of punishment for their crimes. Legislators must determine these justifiable degrees of discipline, and they might vary from small fines for speeding tickets to lengthy prison terms for specific crimes, among other things.
Deterrence is a strategy for preventing future crime and may be divided into targeted deterrence and general deterrence. Specific deterrence is concerned with making a person less inclined to perpetrate a crime in the future because of the fear of receiving a comparable or harsher penalty in the future.
The term “general deterrence” refers to the effect on members of the public who are less inclined to commit a crime after knowing of the penalty that another person has received for their actions.
Changing a criminal’s behavior in order to prevent him from committing another crime is the purpose of rehabilitation. This often requires numerous services while in prison, such as educational and vocational training, placement in treatment facilities, and mental health counseling, among other things.
As a result of this method, judges can frequently include rehabilitation programs into the total sentence of a criminal. The goal must be met because of recidivism, which is defined as people returning to criminal activity after being freed from prison.
This is another ancient technique that’s still in widespread usage. If a person is separated from social interaction, they are considered incapacitated. As one of the most severe detention, house arrest or execution is an option.
In the minds of many, the problem with this approach lies in the fact that it fails to address either rehabilitation or recidivism, the latter of which tends to remain high in societies where the criminal justice system has been rendered unable.
This unique approach to criminal justice requires the offender to make direct apologies to the victim of their crime and the community in which the crime happened as part of their rehabilitation.
This strategy is most often used by judges when dealing with young offenders. In this technique, the criminal and the victim meet for the offender to hear what the victim has to say about their experience with the crime committed. After that, the offender makes an effort to make apologies and seek forgiveness.
These beliefs are deeply intertwined with research on the sorts of crimes and the penalties meted out to them. Each of them was designed by society to guarantee suitable punishment for offenders while also protecting the protection of the general public.