Biden administrationFor COVID-19, government researchers have also been working on what the next generation of vaccines will look like.
They can be combined with seasonal flu vaccines, or come in the form of pills or patches instead of shots. Scientists also envision vaccines that may protect against viruses other than SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and avoid future pandemics.
And they are assessing whether fully vaccinated people may need booster shots later this year. Additional shots may be substantially the same as the first dose, given as a protective measure against the potential for weakened immunity, or fine-tuned to protect against the mutant strain causing concern. there is.
Here’s what we know about the next generation of coronavirus vaccines:
Three major vaccine makers with US-approved shots, Pfizer, Modana, Johnson & Johnson, are planning or already testing additional shots. Booster shots are expected to be very similar to current vaccines, but may be offered in lower doses.
“We understand that many vaccines need to be boosted at some point, whether they are 9 or 12 months old, and we are preparing for that,” said the government’s COVID-. Dr. David Kessler, Chief Scientific Officer for 19 Responses, said. Told a member of the Diet..
Boosters may also be blended with annual seasonal flu shots. Moderna said it plans an early trial of these types of combined shots this year. Other combinations of vaccines are already frequently used to immunize infants against multiple illnesses in a single doctor visit.
However, government officials say they have not yet reached a decision on how booster shots will be used or if they will be needed.
How about the variant?
Boostershot renews the body’s immunity to the virus by mimicking some of the original strains first identified in China, but vaccine makers are trying to combat a new variant of SARS-CoV-2. I am trying to fine-tune the dose. It can cause more serious illness.
This is not uncommon. Seasonal influenza vaccines are changed regularly to address mutations found in viruses around the world.
Dr. John Mascola, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine Research Center, said understanding SARS-CoV-2 mutations is a “main focus” for federal scientists.
NIH has devoted funding and researchers from across the campus to answer important questions about virus variations. Some scientists are focused on testing the potential effects of mutations on vaccine efficacy. Others are working to better understand and map their “epitope”, a spot where antibodies can target the characteristic peplomer of SARS-CoV-2.
“This is a kind of basic scientific body of knowledge that can not only guide antibody therapy in the long run, but also vaccine design. Basically,” I understand how the virus escapes, Can you explain that? ” Mascola explained.
Both Moderna and Pfizer are pursuing possible versions of doses tailored to the B.1.351 variant first discovered in South Africa, but previous studies have shown that current vaccines are against mutants. It has been suggested that it may be almost effective. AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccines not approved for use in the United StatesAgainst South African variants.
“The reason they chose that strain is because it’s one of the things we know right now, there are variants of concern, and it’s the most antigenically different,” Mascola said. ..
Mascola also raised the possibility of providing more protection by developing boosters in South African variants.
“For example, boosting with a B.1.351 strain and finding that the serum antibody is broader may be the preferred approach as it neutralizes not only the original strain but also B.1.351 and other variants. I added. Mascola.
Fly the needle
After the record demands of the pandemic have strained the complex global supply chain, great efforts are underway to devise vaccines that are independent of needle and syringe administration. For some projects, vaccine storage and transportation may be easier without the expensive freezer and dry ice currently required for Moderna and Pfizer vaccines.
For example, future doses may be inhaled through the nose instead of being shot in the arm. NIH recently advertised promising results from a single-dose intranasal vaccine tested in monkeys, as well as AstraZeneca.
Last year, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Agency (BARDA) announced a multi-million dollar contract to develop several other alternatives offered by wearable patches or pills, early testing and regulators. Through approval, we have assigned institutional experts to turn developers into shepherds.
Vaxess Technologies claims that self-applying patches are painless foods stored at room temperature and deliver the vaccine through fine “protrusions” that dissolve in the skin.
“We may use a variety of technologies to collaborate with companies and partner with six vaccine candidates currently supported by the US government,” said Gary Disbrow, director of BARDA.
BARDA hopes that companies will be able to show in small trials that they will elicit the same type of immune response as currently approved vaccine doses and become available to the general public.
“This technique has also been shown for other viral pathogens, but we are trying to support them in clinical trials, and timing is highly dependent on the ability to identify their correlation for protection. “Masu,” added Disbrow.
“Pan coronavirus” vaccine
Scientists at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research recently announced an initial trial of a vaccine that relies on “spike ferritin nanoparticles.” This shows some promising results for a variant of SARS-CoV-2 and a previous related virus known as SARS-. CoV-1.
“For the past four years, we’ve been working on a break from one virus, one vaccine, and we’re really trying to get the vaccine for the future,” said WRAIR’s Emerging Infectious Diseases Division. Top scientist M. Gordon Joyce said. ..
Unlike other vaccines currently licensed, experimental doses of WRAIR will provide engineered triplets of peplomer proteins that are expected to train the immune system to produce higher amounts and diverse antibodies. Designed for. Like other classic “protein vaccines,” developers may prove that these doses are more robust than vaccines that require a carefully controlled climate to remain stable. Say there is.
Researchers say they are discussing with commercial partners for possible next steps for their shots. Current batches of doses being tested may develop into “variant proof” vaccines, booster shots, or serve as a “proof of principle” for future vaccines targeting a wider group of coronaviruses. ..
“We didn’t expect to be here already with a viral vaccine like pan-SARS, but it looks like we could be there,” said Kayvon Modjarrad, director of WRAIR’s Emerging Infectious Diseases Division. Says.
Your COVID vaccine booster may be a patch or pill. Alternatively, it may come with a flu shot.
Source link Your COVID vaccine booster may be a patch or pill. Alternatively, it may come with a flu shot.