More COVID-19 vaccines in the pipeline as US efforts skyrocket | Voice of America

A large US study of another COVID-19 vaccine candidate began on Monday as the state continues to deploy its first shot supply to countries eagerly awaiting relief from a catastrophic outbreak. ..

Public health experts have been asked to collect enough shots for the country and the world, in addition to the two vaccines currently being dispensed (one for Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech and the other for Moderna). It states that it is important.

The candidate created by Novavax Inc. is the fifth to reach final testing in the United States. It takes about 30,000 volunteers to prove that a different type of shot from Pfizer and Moderna’s competitors actually works and is safe.

File-Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, is preparing to receive the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, on December 22, 2020.

“If you need enough vaccine to vaccinate all people in the United States who want to be vaccinated (up to 85% of the population), you need more than one company,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci. I am. A top expert in infectious diseases in the United States, he told The Associated Press on Monday.

According to the COVID Tracking Project, the coronavirus has been accused of killing about 1.8 million people worldwide, including more than 330,000 in the United States. This is the deadliest month in the United States, killing about 65,000 people in December. The country has repeatedly recorded more than 3,000 deaths per day over the past few weeks.

And the United States can face a terrible winter. Approximately 1.3 million people passed through the country’s airport on Sunday, despite being warned to stay home and avoid others at Christmas. This is the highest daily total since the crisis struck the United States nine months ago. ..

The Trump administration’s Operation Warp Speed ​​expects to ship Pfizer and Moderna vaccines to the state by early January, less than initially estimated.

It is not possible to track in real time how quickly people are taking the first of the two required doses. As of Monday, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had reports of more than 2.1 million vaccinations out of the 11.4 million vaccinations shipped, but authorities are aware that the number is outdated. I will. It may take several days for vaccine providers to report little by little and add them to the site.

“The arrival of the vaccine does not mean that the clinic can be put into operation on the spot,” said Jenny Balta, a public health official in Carlton County, Minnesota.

Registered nurse Cynthia Banana (left) is vaccinated with Moderna COVID-19 vaccine to Miami Jewish Health's Ruth Corazo (103) ...
Registered nurse Cynthia Banana (left) will administer the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine to Luz Collazo (103) on December 28, 2020 at Miami Jewish Health, a senior healthcare facility in Miami.

But on Tuesday, her agency aims to vaccinate 100 people at a drive-through clinic for emergency healthcare professionals who want Balta to become a model for larger attempts at mass vaccination. Nurses vaccinate cars lined up in the county-owned snowplow garage. When the driver gets a shot, make sure there are no allergic reactions in the parking space before returning home.

“Vaccination of one individual at a time is a way for us to get out of this pandemic,” she said.

Yet another concern with vaccine scrambling: Will Shot block a new variant of the coronavirus that appears in the UK and can spread more easily? Forch said the vaccine is still protected from the virus, according to UK data, but researchers at the National Institutes of Health will certainly “examine it very intensively.”

Let’s take a look at the leading candidates for the global vaccine race.

Genetic code vaccine

The United States is based on a study suggesting that the urgent deployment of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and similar vaccines created by Moderna and NIH are both about 95% effective. Europe will start its first vaccination with Pfizer Shot over the weekend and decide whether to add Moderna on January 6th.

These shots are created with a brand new technology that injects part of the genetic code of the peplomer protein that coats the coronavirus. The messenger RNA, or mRNA, induces the body to produce harmless spike proteins. This is enough to prepare the immune system for a reaction if you later encounter the actual virus.

Both vaccines should be frozen. Pfizer is injected at ultra-low temperatures, complicating inoculation into poor areas and rural areas.

Additional companies are working towards their own mRNA candidates, such as Germany’s CureVac, which has begun extensive research in Europe.

Protein vaccine

Novavax candidates are made in different ways, using what Fauci called a “more trial-and-error” technique that required only normal refrigeration. A Maryland company grows a harmless copy of the coronavirus spike protein in the laboratory and mixes it with chemicals that boost immunity.

Novavax enrolled 15,000 in the UK and 4,000 in South Africa for late-stage studies. The latest and largest U.S. government-sponsored study recruits volunteers from more than 115 sites in the U.S. and Mexico, along with volunteers from the virus-hit black and Hispanic communities to high-risk older people It is targeted. ..

“We must protect our community and our people,” said Rev. Peter Johnson, 75, a prominent civil rights activist in Dallas who was one of the first volunteers. I did.

Two-thirds of the participants will receive the vaccine and the rest will receive dummy shots. This is a twist from previous vaccine studies that gave half of the volunteers a placebo. Dr. Gregory Glenn, Head of Research at Novavax, said this should help recruit people who wonder if it’s better for researchers to participate in the study or wait for existing shots. Said that.

For many, it will be a long wait. Pfizer and Moderna shots are initially planned for healthcare professionals and nursing home residents, followed by people over the age of 75 and essential workers.

“If you want to hedge your bets, for most people who don’t belong to these very high-risk groups, the shortest route to getting the vaccine is to sign up for a trial,” said NIH director Francis.・ Dr. Collins said.

Trojan Vaccine

The next big vaccine news may come from Johnson & Johnson, who is aiming for a single dose COVID-19 vaccine.

It is made in yet another way and uses a harmless virus (a cold virus called adenovirus) to carry the spike gene into the body. In mid-December, J & J completed the registration of approximately 45,000 volunteers for a final-stage survey in the United States and six other countries. Fouch is hoping for early results sometime next month.

In the UK, regulators are also considering clearing similar vaccines manufactured by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford.

Shot tests in the UK, South Africa and Brazil have shown it to be safe and partially protected — about 70%. However, questions remain about how well the vaccine works in people over the age of 55 and how to interpret the results from a small number of people given different dose sets.

A US survey of AstraZeneca shots is still looking for volunteers. Fouch said researchers want it to provide a clearer answer.

Chinese and Russian companies also manufacture adenovirus-based vaccines and started their administration before the final trial results were available. Argentina will soon use the Russian vaccine.

Inactivated vaccine

Vaccines that focus on spikes are not the only option. Making a vaccine by multiplying the disease-causing virus and then killing it is an older approach that allows the body to peep into the bacterium itself, not just its single spike protein.

In China, such inactivated COVID-19 vaccines have been final tested in three countries, allowing some people to use them urgently before results are available. Indian companies are testing their own inactivated candidates.

More COVID-19 vaccines in the pipeline as US efforts skyrocket | Voice of America

Source link More COVID-19 vaccines in the pipeline as US efforts skyrocket | Voice of America

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