Lawmakers in 27 states have proposed legislation prohibiting transgender athletes from participating in school sports that match their gender identity, protesting from both parents and advocates who make the restriction unconstitutional. Voice is rising.
Idaho became the first state to enact such a ban last year, but was blocked by federal judges as the court battle continued. The law allows anyone to challenge personal sexual identity. And request the presentation of a birth certificate as proof. This year, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, West Virginia, Florida, and Tennessee each enacted their own similar bans.
Female athletes in some states have filed proceedings against local school districts and states after transgender athletes have defeated them in competitions, and transgender women have clear advantages over them. These cases have been highlighted by Republicans who support a complete ban, and lawmakers say they want to protect female athletes.
However, researchers do not know how many transgender athletes are actually participating in the competition nationwide, and there is no conclusive evidence that transgender athletes have an advantage over cisgender athletes. Says.
1. There is no official number of transgender in youth, high school and college sports.
Most sports associations at the youth, high school and college levels do not know how many transgender athletes are involved.
If a policy exists, its implementation is unique. In Ohio, transgender students must apply to join their sports team and are accepted on a case-by-case basis. “Since the fall of 2015, there have been 48 transgender decisions, of which only 11 are women’s transgender approvals,” a spokeswoman for the Ohio High School Athletic Association said in a statement.
At the university level, there are at least 50 trans women competing in the US women’s sports team, according to Joanna Harper, author and researcher at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom. Harper believes that the men’s sports team has hundreds of trans-athletes who haven’t transitioned yet, and it’s “nearly impossible” to determine how many trans-athletes are competing at the youth and high school levels. Said that.
According to the Williams Institute at UCLA Law School, there are 1.4 million adults in the United States who identify themselves as transgender, which is less than 1% of the state’s population. It’s more difficult to decide. Many children are at various stages of the transition or are probably afraid of their safety.
Jules Gil Peterson, a professor of gender, sexuality and women’s studies at the University of Pittsburgh, said in history many trance children have been found to hide from fear for safety. It was. “Transgender children have been in school, seeing doctors and living in our community for over a century,” said Gil-Peterson. “They weren’t always visible, which means we’re actually working on a new problem that really depends on some sort of historical memory loss.“
2. All bills require children to prove their gender.
26 All bills provide children with a birth certificate or, if there is a gender objection, a valid examination by a licensed doctor to prove the gender assigned at birth. Requesting.
Under the “Women’s Sports Fairness” Act proposed in New Jersey, athletes who are being asked for gender will prove their gender with a genital examination or a signed doctor’s certificate certifying testosterone or a chromosomal panel. is needed.
Similar requirements apply to Ohio, West Virginia, and Rhode Island, and students who believe that transgender athletes have been “deprived” of their athletic victories and opportunities can sue schools and higher education institutions.
The 3.21 bill only prohibits transgender from women’s teams.
Twenty-two of the bills are written to ban transgender girls and women from joining women’s sports teams, and the other six include boys and men’s teams. Eight states, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, West Virginia, Florida, and Tennessee, have passed the bill to allow transgender girls to join the sports team of their choice. From an administrative order to prevent and come a South Dakota ban.
The bill cites a case in which athletes who transitioned from male to female at birth still retain high levels of testosterone and muscle density after hormone therapy. Supporters of the bill are for cis-gender girls. I believe it is an unfair advantage.
Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves said, “We will sign a bill that will prevent young girls from competing with biological men for exercise opportunities.” Tweeted I will announce his decision. “It is wrong to encourage children to adopt transgenderism.”
Governor Bill Lee of Tennessee signed His state bill “maintains women’s athletics and guarantees fair competition.” The South Carolina bill is entitled “Preserving Women’s Sports Law.”
“We believe it is very important that these competitions are consistent and that these opportunities are protected. I can tell you this. In Florida, girls are girls’ sports. And boys will play boys’ sports, “Governor Ron DeSantis said in signing the Florida bill.
4.TThis is some completed study of whether young transgender athletes have a measurable advantage over cisgender athletes.
The Arkansas, Kansas, New Jersey, and Rhode Island bills cite a 2012 article published in Psychology Today. From women. ”
The bill argues that these benefits are “most important for success in sports such as strength, speed and endurance,” giving transgender women an advantage over cisgender women and biological men. I call it.
Harper, a British researcher, tells another story about her work. Sports such as athletics and sprinting can make a bigger difference as students begin to mature. Only fully converted to athletic performance at.
“Most sports do not rely solely on one or another aspect of athletic performance, but a combination of athletic performance, skills, resources, game time, insight, and all sorts of other factors, for example. Quantifying team sports is very difficult, “Harper said.
To equalize the arena in these examples, qualified athletes must comply with similar hormone therapy rules used at college and Olympic levels.
Also, many researchers are unable to study children during and after the transition, which limits the studies conducted. Studies already underway focus on adult and already mature athletes. A 2021 study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine suggested that transgender women could maintain a physical advantage over cisgender women after a year of hormone therapy, but tissue. Proposes to extend the required waiting period to two years instead of banning transgender athletes altogether.
“It’s really hard to say exactly what’s true and what’s not true about transgender athletes,” Harper added. “But transgender athletes and certain transgender women are women’s. There is no sign that you are on the verge of or close to taking over the sport. “
5. Opponents are concerned that the bill could adversely affect the mental health of transgender athletes.
According to the Trevor Project’s national LGBTQ + mental health survey, more than half of transgender and non-binary adolescents are serious about suicide, and more than 40% of respondents are physically harmed or threatened because of their orientation. I am reporting that I received it.
“Transgender children are now roaming their targets in this country. The types of mental health and long-term effects on people’s life opportunities cannot really be underestimated,” said Gil. Peterson said.
According to a survey, 61% of transgender youth say they are more discriminated against in school than anywhere else. However, the study also found that respect and affirmation of transgender student identities was “consistently associated with lower suicide attempt rates.” The price is cut in half.
6. One law is bound in court and the other faces the threat of legal challenge.
Last year, ACLU filed a proceeding against the ban on Idaho, threatening to sue other states that have its own legislation. The proceedings were filed on behalf of Lindsay Hecox, a transgender athlete who wishes to play athletics at Boise State University.
“I just want to run with the other girls on the team,” Hecox said in a statement at the time. “I’m running for myself, but part of the sporting fun is building relationships with the team. To do. I’m a girl. The right team for me is a girl’s team. ”
In May, ACLU also submitted A lawsuit against West Virginia over a law prohibiting transgender girls from playing in women’s sports teams. ACLU’s transgender rights lawyer, Chase Strangio, said the group plans to file more proceedings later this year.
“The sad reality is that these bills are already illegal. Title IX prohibits discrimination against school students,” Stradio said. “Ultimately, this was the message and strategy of a group of people and organizations that have long been working on attacking transgender people.”
“Unfortunately, the state is moving very quickly and in some cases will pass too late, but we will continue to fight back in every possible way.”
In South Dakota, Governor Christie Noem has partially vetoed a bill banning transgender girls and women from playing in women’s sports teams. Due to her partial veto, the ban was limited to high school and elementary school sports, and the modified version was withdrawn in the House of Representatives. The governor was afraid of proceedings and retaliation from the NCAA.
However, Noem issued two weaker executive orders. One is to present the girl with a birth certificate certifying that she was born as a woman in order to play for the women’s team. Second, it encourages universities in the state to ban transgender athletes.
Justin Carissimo contributed to this report.
Ban on transgender athletes — 6 facts
Source link Ban on transgender athletes — 6 facts